A Colorful Phrenolgy Head Chart

Phrenology is a theory which claims to be able to determine character and personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (reading "bumps"). Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall around 1800, and very popular in the 19th century, it is now discredited as a pseudoscience. To make a long story short, this 19th century belief that mental characteristics were physically engraved in the brain, and were signified by bumps on the head was replaced in the 20th century by studies like evolutionary psychology, which holds that mental characteristics are physically engraved in the brain because our ancestors literally had to suffer bumps on the head (and evolve the wits to avoid them)...... and this also will likely be considered a pseudoscience in the near future.


Back to the 19th Century American X-Files Page



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